Wine to vinegar.
1. Ethanol. Active group is an alcohol, observed as R-COH. Toxic to human.
2. Acetaldehyde. Active group is an aldehyde, observed as R-CH=O. An unstable intermediate. It cannot be replaced by a nucleophile.
3. Acetic Acid. Active group is a carboxyl, observed as R-COOH. It can be replaced by a nucleophile.
C2H6O (Ethanol) → C2H4O (Acetaldehyde) → C2H4O2(Acetic Acid) + Acetyl-CoA + 3H2O+2CO2
Acetic acid ->(LiAH4 or DIBAH) -> Acetaldehyde –> (NaBH4) -> Ethanol
Acetic acid -> (Sodium SG /Silica gel/distillation) –> Ethanol
Acetaldehyde binds to hemoglobin, inhibits prostaglandin, and give the effects of hypoxia.
Alcohol is toxic and does not taste good.